Renal Cell Carcinoma Staging with Multidetector Computed Tomography
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant primary renal tumor in adults. Pre-operative staging of RCC with imaging and histology is critical in determining the ideal surgical approach and in providing patients and clinicians with accurate prognostic information. On a macroscopic level, Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) has been shown to correlate well with TNM pathologic staging of RCC in providing important information regarding size and location of a renal mass, organ confinement, presence of tumor thrombus in the renal vein and IVC, local lymph node involvement and distant metastases. Pathologically, stage, nuclear grade and sarcomatoid component are most important prognostic factors in RCC. The Fuhrman nuclear grading system is the most commonly used by pathologists and categorizes RCC into grades 1-4.