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PP005

STUDYING LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OF DIABETES AND IT RELATIONSHIP WITH DEMOGRAPHIC IN NURSES TO HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL CENTERS IN SANANDAJ CITY, IN 2007

Thursday, 6 October, 2011 - 15:40
Board 1

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the oldest known diseases. Diabetes is the third leading cause of death from disease, primarily because of the high rate of cardiovascular disease among people with diabetes. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and retinal damage. Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as smoking cessation and maintaining a healthy body weight. As of 2000 at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency. This type of diabetes can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, where beta cell loss is AT-cell mediated autoimmune attack. Almost data sources do not distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults , it is not possible to present data separately for subtypes of diabetes There is no known preventive measure against type 1 diabetes, which causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because it represents a majority of the diabetes cases in children. Indigenous populations in first world countries have a higher prevalence and increasing incidence of diabetes than their corresponding non-indigenous populations.. In 2010 nearly 26 million people have diabetes in the United States alone, from those 7 million people remain undiagnosed. Another 57 million people are estimated to have pre-diabetes. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by 2030, this number will almost double. Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030. Brittle diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, refers to a type of insulin -dependent diabetes characterized by dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason. The classical symptoms of diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent. Patient education, understanding, and participation is vital since the complications of diabetes are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels. The goal of treatment is an HbA1C level of 6.5%, but should not be lower than that, and may be set higher. Attention is also paid to other health problems that may accelerate the deleterious effects of diabetes. These include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, high blood pressure, and lack of regular exercise Type 1 diabetes is typically treated with combinations of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analogs. When insulin is used in type 2 diabetes, a long-acting formulation is usually added initially, while continuing oral medications. Doses of insulin are then increased to effect. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by 2030, this number will almost double. Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.The increase in incidence of diabetes in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, perhaps most importantly a "Western-style" diet. The primary goals of treatment include controlling and preventing complications. Nurses who care for patients with diabetes must help them develop self –care management skills.

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